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Jean Dubuffet 

A Retrospective G lance at Eighty 


N6853.D78 \-4 1981 
Jean Dtibuffel 

N6853 D78 \4 1981 
Jean Diibnffet 



front cover: 1. Rope Skipper. February 1943 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

back cover: 120. Protocol ol Epiphany. 1976 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

Courtesy Morton and Linda Janklow: cat. nos. 1. 12. 18. 82, 104 
Robert E Mates and Mary Donlon: cat. nos. 4, 7, 10, 74, 100, 106 
Eric Pollitzer, New York: cat no 120 
Courtesy Secretariat de Jean Dubuffet, Paris: pp. 4-5. 7, 30, 31 

5,000 copies of this brochure, designed by Malcolm Grear Designers. 
Inc . have been printed and typeset by Eastern Press in July 1981 
for the Trustees of The Solomon R Guggenheim Foundation. 

* The Solomon R Guggenheim Foundation, New York, 1981 

Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum Library 

Jean Dubuffet 

A Retrospective Glance at Eighty 

From the Collections of Morton and Linda Janklow and 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 

Jean Dubuffet: 

A Retrospective Glance 

at Eighty 

On July 31. 1981. Jean Dubuffet reached his eightieth 
birthday. Given his lack of patience with any event that 
threatens to interpose itself between himself and his 
work, Dubuffet's attainment of octogenarianism is likely 
to be of greater importance to his friends than to the 
artist. Indeed, it requires a certain temerity to propose 
this birthday toast from New York to Paris, and to do so 
publicly and in the form of an exhibition. Such a toast, 
nevertheless, is made in behalf of those who have 
admired him from the first and also those who came to 
appreciate his work later, once he had assumed a visi- 
bly commanding position in the art of the second half 
of this century. It is made even in behalf of those who 
will only come to see and comprehend Dubuffet in his 
full and ample range at some future time, when the 
moody zietgeist that so often confuses our sensibilities 
and befogs our critical judgement has receded suffi- 
ciently to allow a direct and uninhibited encounter with 
the rich and rewarding lifework of this man of uncom- 
mon insights. 

The toast proposed here, like any birthday wish, is 
necessarily a family affair, and the spokesmen — Morton 
and Linda Janklow. together with the undersigned— are 
proud to be among the artist's friends. If the familial 
framework of the occasion reaches beyond the inti- 
macy that normally obtains, it is only because Jean 
Dubuffet's art, now encompassing four decades, can no 
longer be contained within a limited circle. It speaks to 
the many, even in a limited selection such as our own. 

It is a selection limited in numbers, to be sure, but also 
deliberately restricted in ambition, since it is not our 
intent to repeat the grand retrospectives already dedi- 
cated to Jean Dubuffet by this Museum and many 
others throughout the world Instead, we seek an occa- 
sion to present two collections, one private and the 
other public, each in its own way reflecting profound 
belief in and commitment to Dubuffet's art, each com- 
plementing the other. The Morton and Linda Janklow 
Collection as well as the Guggenheim's own holdings, 
which include three promised gifts from The Mary 
Sisler Collection, were of course selectively acquired 
over a long period of years In both collections, the 
paintings, sculptures and works on paper show an 
evident concern with the many phases of Dubuffet's 
evolution, from the earliest cycles to current mani- 
festations of his creative genius By stressing the indi- 
vidual choice as much as the sequential context, the 
Janklow and the Guggenheim collections have reacted 

to the two components in the artist's total contribution 
that, perhaps more than any others, determine the 
quality and the enduring significance of his oeuvre. I 
am referring, first, to the sheer vitality and sensuous 
impact of each individual object and. second, to the 
range of Dubuffet's stylistic development, that is, the 
distance the artist's intuition and perception have 
traveled throughout his mature evolution. These two 
qualities in Jean Dubuffet's art. strength and scope, are 
rarely exemplified with more complementary force in 
modern art. 

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The forty-five paintings, watercolors. drawings and 
sculptures, enhanced by a selection of prints, from the 
two combined Dubuffet collections shown here should, 
therefore, serve as a highly selective sample of his 
work, a reminder of retrospectives past, as well as our 
gesture in honor of Jean Dubuffet's eightieth birthday. 

Thomas M. Messer. Director 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 

The artist in his studio in Paris. 
November 1978 

f ,-» T-«. -- 

52^=>#* _>— _ 


I 1 

Notes on Collecting 
and Friendship 
A Tribute to 
Jean Dubuffet 

A friend sat in our home one quiet evening recently, 
surrounded by the works of Jean Dubuffet. and put 
forward the single question collectors most dread to 
hear "Why. exactly, do you do this?" 

Why indeed? How explain to anyone, even to a close 
friend, the peculiar mania which grips you at some 
point in life and engages you in a passionate pursuit to 
which many of your other interests are subordinated? 
How rationalize the levels of commitment demanded? 
How describe why it is that so much of one's personal 
and emotional resources can be directed at amassing a 
collection of which one can only be temporary 

Certain answers suggest themselves quickly. There is 
great joy in being surrounded by beauty of such infinite 
variety and by the creative genius of an artist with 
whose perceptions there is a personal identification. 
There is also a strong sense of being engaged at the 
forefront of our culture. The collector feels enhanced 
emotionally by his collection, and by the joy of dis- 
covery in the quest for great works. 

There are, however, more subtle and more meaningful 
characteristics which I think ultimately separate the 
collector from the acquirer. Collectors are excited by 
the early cognition of genius and its influence on the 
art and the artists of our time. One strives for the devel- 
opment of a discriminating eye and of the critical 
understanding to seek out the most significant 
examples. As the passion grows and becomes consum- 
ing, the collector becomes aware of his own increasing 
identification with the artist and with his objectives. 
While it is only the work of the creative genius which 
survives, collecting those works in a scholarly and 
analytical way is a reflection of the unconscious desire 
to share in his artistic expression in some small way. 
We seek, in the end. the same kind of spiritual and 
aesthetic renewal which causes the great artist to 
constantly launch himself into the unknown. 

Jean Dubuffet is an artist whose work has inspired us 
and has brought us inestimable joy. By the fertility of 
his genius and his never-ending creativity, he has 
changed the way reality and beauty are defined and 
perceived in this world. Dubuffet has forged the way for 
all artists in the postwar period, planting markers along 
the road which did not inhibit them but rather freed 
them from prior inhibitions so that their work could 
flower as it has. Without him, much of what has been 
created in this fertile period would not have been 

He has encouraged all of us to reach out and to open 
ourselves to new perceptions of the world around us. 
As Is true with all great artists, those perceptions 
involve the intellect as well as the eye; philosophy as 
well as art, and the world as well as ourselves. He has 
taught us about courage and daring and the taking of 
risks. He has made us aware of the dangers of compla- 
cency and smugness and self-satisfaction. He has 
driven us, the viewers, almost as much as he has driven 
himself. His demands on us are great because they 
reflect the demands he has made upon himself. The 
challenge with Dubuffet is everywhere and in every- 
thing that he does and perhaps this is why we love his 
work with such intensity. 

Linda and I are extremely grateful for this opportunity 
to join with Thomas Messer and the Trustees and Staff 
of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, great advo- 
cates of the work of Jean Dubuffet, in this small tribute 
as he enters his ninth decade. We have had the great 
joy not only of collaborating in the creation of this col- 
lection, but also in knowing Jean Dubuffet personally 
for a number of years. We treasure his friendship as we 
do his genius, and our lives have been immeasurably 
enhanced through our involvement with him and his 

Happy Birthday Maitre— may you continue to stimulate 
and challenge all of us. 

Morton L. Janklow 
New York 
July 1981 


The texts which follow are excerpts from Jean 
Dubuffet's writings. Where a title of a work of art is 
cited, the text is directly related to that work. Where no 
title is cited, the commentary is general in nature. 

An internal mechanism should be set in motion in the 
viewer so he will scrape where the painter scraped, 
scumble, gouge, fill in and bear down where the painter 
did. He will feel all the painter's gestures repeated in 
himself. He will experience the viscous pull of gravity 
where the paint has run and when brilliant outbursts 
occur he will burst with them. He will dry out, contract, 
fold into himself where the surface is dry and wrinkled. 
And he will swell up suddenly inside at the sight of a 
blister or some other sign of death. (Prospectus, p. 75. 
Translated by Thomas Repensek) 

I prefer to avoid anything circumstantial in the subjects 
I paint; I would rather paint things generally. If I paint a 
country road, I want it to be an archetype of a country 
road, a synthesis of all the country roads in the world, 
and if I paint a man's profile I am satisfied if my paint- 
ing evokes an image of a human face, without acci- 
dental and unnecessary particular characteristics. 
{Jean Dubuffet. Prospectus et tous ecrits suivants. 
compiled and edited by Hubert Damisch. Paris. 1967. p. 
77. Translated by Thomas Repensek) 

4 Will to Power January 1946 

Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York 

7. Triumph and Glory. December 1950 

Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum. New York 


In the forty or fifty paintings I did between April 1950 
and February 1951 in the category Corps de dames, the 
drawing should not be seen too literally Crude and 
careless, it outlines nude female figures, and, taken at 
face value, would appear to represent abominably 
obese, deformed individuals. I didn't want the drawing 
to specify the figures in any precise form, but. on the 
contrary, to prevent the figures from taking on such 
and such a characteristic form. I wanted the figures to 
remain general concepts and in an immaterial state. I 
take pleasure (and I believe this inclination is fairly 
constant in my paintings) in the brutal juxtaposition, in 
these women's bodies, of the very general and the very 
specific, of the very subjective, of the metaphysical and 
the absurdly trivial. . . . The glaringly obvious errors I 
no doubt too often allow to become a part of my work 
are of the same order; I mean the unintended strokes, 
the vulgar awkwardness, the obviously inappropriate, 
anti-realistic forms, colors poorly chosen and poorly 
used, everything that must seem unbearable to some 
and even cause me a certain uneasiness in as much as 
they often spoil my effect. But it's an awkwardness I 
purposely cultivate. Because it makes the painter's 
hand vividly present in the painting. It keeps objectivity 
at a distance, it tends to prevent things from taking 
shape. . . . And I should also add that this brutal mani- 
festation in the painting of the material means used by 
the painter to create the objects that are represented, 
and which would seem to prevent these objects, as I've 
just said, from taking shape, in fact accomplishes the 
very opposite for me: it seems paradoxically to give 
these objects an amplified presence, or, perhaps more 
precisely, makes this presence more striking, more 
moving. ("Notes du peintre," in Georges Limbour, L'arf 
brut de Jean Dubuffet. Tableau bon levain a vous de 
cuire la pate. New York, 1953, pp. 91-97. Translated by 
Thomas Repensek) 

Having been attached for such a long time— a whole 
year — to the particular theme of the body of the naked 
woman . . I think it is, in part, because the female 
body, of all the objects in the world, is the one that has 
long been associated (for Occidentals) with a very spe- 
cious notion of beauty (inherited from the Greeks and 
cultivated by the magazine covers); now it pleases me 
to protest against this aesthetic, which I find miserable 
and most depressing. Surely I aim for a beauty, but not 
that one. . . . I would like people to look at my work as 
an enterprise for the rehabilitation of scorned values, 
and ... a work of ardent celebration. . . . ("Land- 
scaped Tables. Landscapes of the Mind, Stones of 
Philosophy," in Peter Selz and Jean Dubuffet, The 
Work of Jean Dubuffet, exh. cat., The Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, New York, 1962, p. 64 Translated by the artist 
and Marcel Duchamp) 


I have a vague idea— it haunts me when I paint— that a 
melange with the discordant and the contrary of life is 
useful to produce it, as if life could emerge only where 
forces fight to prevent it. ... I am pleased when life 
itself is questionable in every part of the painting. I am 
pleased to see life in trouble, going insane — hesitating 
between certain forms that we recognize as belonging 
to our familiar surroundings, and others that we do not, 
and whose voices astonish— giving rise to ambiguous 
forms, coming at the same time from both poles. 
Ambiguous facts have always a great fascination for 
me, for they seem to me to be located at just those 
intersections where the real nature of things may be 
revealed Perhaps it was the time I spent in the deserts 
of White Africa that sharpened my taste (so fundamen- 
tal to the mood of Islam) for the little, the almost 
nothing, and, especially, in my art. for the landscapes 
where one finds only the formless — flats without end, 
scattered stones— every element definitely outlined 
such as trees, roads, houses etc., eliminated. Surely I 
love especially the earth and enjoy places of this sort. 
But I must say also that a picture, where a painter 
would have succeeded in producing strongly a pres- 
ence of life without employing anything more precise 
than formless terrain, would be for me very worthwhile; 
. . . These are landscapes of the brain. . . . ("Land- 
scaped Tables, Landscapes of the Mind, Stones of 
Philosophy," in Selz and Dubuffet, pp. 66-71. 
Translated by the artist and Marcel Duchamp) 

One will find, among the other paintings that occupied 
me last year, a fair number of pictures representing 
only a table— sometimes loaded with half-determined 
objects, but most often bare. These tables are treated 
also with the same mealy and bristling texture as the 
landscapes, and are related to them. They respond to 
the idea that, just like a bit of land, any place in this 
world (especially if it relates to an object so inseparable 
and so cherished a companion as is a man's own table) 
is peopled with a swarm of facts, and not only those 
which belong to the life of the table itself, but also, mix- 
ing with them, others which inhabit the thought of man, 
and which he impresses on the table looking at it. . . . 
("Landscaped Tables, Landscapes of the Mind. Stones 
of Philosophy," in Selz and Dubuffet. pp. 71-72. 
Translated by the artist and Marcel Duchamp) 

Petites Statues de la Vie Precaire (Little Statues of 
Precarious Life). March to October 1954 
The first of these statues was . . . made of pieces of 
newspaper smeared with glue and bunched around an 
armature. . . . The second was . . . made of steel wool 
such as housewives use to clean their pots and pans 
The third . . . made use of fragments of burned auto- 
mobiles that I found in the garage where I kept my car. 
Those that followed were made of broken clinkers put 
together with cement. . . . After using clinkers for two 
months, I went to sponges. ... To these ... I would 
sometimes add oakum dipped in glue. ... I should like 
to call particular attention to two or three of the statues 
which are made of light delicate fragments of shredded 
sponge, for they, even more than any of the others, are 
characterized by extreme precariousness and imma- 
teriality. (Selz and Dubuffet, pp. 87-90. Translated by 
Louise Varese) 


10 Knoll of Visions. August 23. 1952 

Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York 


Peintures Laquees (Enamel Paintings) 
July to September 1954 

I had decided to experiment with a new technique, 
based on the almost exclusive use of very fluid indus- 
trial paints called "enamel paints". . . these particular 
paints were those quick-drying ones known as "four- 
hour enamels." Spread over a preliminary layer not yet 
completely dry, they became decomposed, causing a 
fine network of fissures and crackles. I took full advan- 
tage of this property . . . I combined these enamel 
paints with ordinary oil paint and, as they displayed a 
lively incompatibility, the result was a whple set of dig- 
itate spots and convolutions which I was careful to pro- 
voke and turn to account. . . . After, as in The 
Extravagant One [Extravagant Lady], I would often 
finish the painting with a little brush, a task requiring 
both time and patience. This underlined the tiny net- 
work of small veins and oscillations provoked by the 
juxtaposition of the two hostile paints. . . . the set of 
reasons which governs the images is to be found in the 
capricious and complex designs that form by them- 
selves because of the simultaneous use of two kinds of 
paint with different reactions which combine badly with 
each other. Later . . . I deliberately set to work to adopt 
their language. The result, a whole succession of 
marbling (small internal branching and intricately 
embellished surfaces) which succeeds in transporting 
the subjects of the painting— figure, landscape or 
anything else — to a world ruled by entirely different 
reasons, making them appear in an unaccustomed 
light. In this way. by the revelation of our familiar 
objects suddenly transformed and strange, is evoked, 
even quite startingly sometimes (at least for me), these 
strange bewildering worlds that exercise a kind of fas- 
cination. (Selz and Dubuffet. pp 92-96. Translated by 
Louise Varese) 


12 Extravagant Lady July 1954 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 


Vaches. Herbe, Frondaisons (Cows, Grass. Foliage). 
Summer 1954 

... I loved spending hours watching the cows and 
afterwards drawing them from memory, or even, but 
much more rarely, from life. ... I am obsessed by the 
idea that there is something both false and unprofitable 
in looking at things too closely and too long. . . . What 
to me seems interesting is to recover in the representa- 
tion of an object the whole complex set of impressions 
we receive as we see it normally in everyday life, the 
manner in which it has touched our sensibility, and the 
forms it assumes in our memory. . . . That is why I have 
an aversion to drawing any objects from life. ... I have 
always tried to represent any object, transcribing it in a 
most summary manner, hardly descriptive at all, very 
far removed from the actual objective measurements of 
things, making many people speak of children's draw- 
ings. ... I should say that the sight of this animal gives 
me an inexhaustible sense of well-being because of the 
atmosphere of calm and serenity it seems to generate. I 
can also say that pastures, and even merely the color 
green — because of the cows, I suppose, by an uncon- 
scious association of ideas— has a comforting and 
soothing effect on me. . . . But this is not always the 
effect I wanted to produce. ... I liked to portray the 
cow as a kind of preposterous Punch, and to use all the 
elements of the countryside — meadows, trees and 
others— to create a sort of grotesque theater, a circus 
of clowns. This was probably the consequence of the 
same attitude evident in Portraits, in Arabs, in Corps de 
Dames or in Paysages Grotesques. . . . Although I 
never consciously thought of it at the time, on looking 
back I am sure that in transferring their image to a 
devil-may-care, arbitrary, phantasmagoric world of 
clowns. I had an obscure idea of conferring on them, 
by means of irreality, a more intensely alive reality. . . . 
(Selz and Dubuffet, pp. 96-103. Translated by Louise 

Seconde Serie de Petits Tableaux d'Ailes de Papillons 
(Second Series of Little Paintings of Butterfly Wings). 
Vence, June to September 1955 
During the months of June to September, I finished 
about thirty of these little compositions made of 
butterfly wings stuck to paper with a bit of glue, the 
background tinted with watercolor, and sometimes 
decorated later with lines put in with a fine brush that 
suggested the natural nervures of the wings. . . . 
Several subjects now held my attention with persis- 
tence. . . . the sun-dried stone walls one sees every- 
where in Vence. . . . But I was even more fascinated by 
the tiny botanical world at the foot of the walls, 
worthless and charming, overrunning the side of the 
road among little stones, and mixed with the dusty 
trash that collects along neglected roadways. ... It was 
inevitable that my compositions of assembled butterfly 
wings, done at a moment when my mind was full of 
these themes, should bear upon them too. . . . there 
were also a few fantastic, extravagant personages born 
of these assemblages of wings . . . The very material 
used (altogether unusual) and the play of the nervures. 
added a strange irreality to the paintings, but a com- 
pelling authority as well, due to the impression it gave 
of cohesion, of necessity, of an inexplicable but very 
impelling logic, that set of reasons foreign to the 
reasons of the objects themselves ... In addition, the 
particular constitution of the color in these assem- 
blages of butterfly wings affected me strongly ... the 
colors of butterflies are not really very vivid .... but 
delicate and lustrous; and the over-all color of my little 
paintings was pearly, irridescent, and one sensed a 
subtle sheen rather than color in the real sense of the 
word, a scintillation that I would afterwards stubbornly 
try to get in my paintings. . (Selz and Dubuffet, pp. 
109-1 13. Translated by Louise Varese) 


Your beard is my boat 
Your beard is the sea on which I sail 
Beard of flux and influx 
Beard-bath and rain of beards 
Element woven of fluids 
Tapestry of tales 

(From "La Fleur de Barbe. " Dossiers du College de 
Pataphysique, no. 10, 11, Paris, p. 6) 

Topographies, Texturologies et Quelques Pemtures, 
Notes on the Paintings done between September 1 and 
December 31, 1957 

. . . Except for these few paintings all my works of this 
period belong to my project for the execution of a cycle 
of large paintings celebrating the ground. . . . What I 
had in mind was to portray these surfaces without 
using lines or forms. I meant to evoke any area of bare 
ground — preferably esplanade or roadway. . Again 
and again these paintings became transformed into 
Tables. It should be remarked that a table is in a way an 
elevated piece of ground. ... As I worked on these new 
tables, I was pleased to feel the awakening of the same 
enthusiasm, of a very special kind, which this rather 
odd subject had afforded me in those earlier years, and 
to find that I could obtain just as convincing effects by 
means of entirely different techniques. . . In the 
course of my work, I have noticed that it is often after a 
long while, after periods of absence, that one fine day, 
thanks to all the detours, and by entirely different 
paths. I stumble upon what I once sought and failed to 
find. . . . (Selz and Dubuffet, pp. 128-132 Translated by 
Louise Varese) 


Among my projects of the last three years was the 
painting of doors. During my walks in and around 
Vence, to provide myself with documents. I had made 
sketches of the various doors I came across, and two 
years before that. I had even bought a large dilapidated 
peasant door so that I could study it at leisure in my 
home. . . . One of the paintings intended, like the 
others, as an element of the ground in my Topogra- 
phies, seemed to lend itself, with only a few supple- 
mentary touches, to such a transformation into a door, 
completely filling as it did the entire rectangle of the 
painting. A little while later I decided to cut up this rec- 
tangle, attach it to a board and pin up around it various 
other elements previously taken from other paintings to 
represent a wall, a doorstep, and the ground. Certain of 
these elements, intended for my assemblages, were the 
result of a special technique. It consisted in shaking a 
brush over the painting spread out on the floor, 
covering it with a spray of tiny droplets. This is the 
technique, known as "Tyrolean," that masons use in 
plastering walls to obtain certain mellowing effects. 

But, instead of brushes, they use little branches of 
trees — juniper, box, etc. — and they have different ways 
of shaking them to get the particular effect they want. I 
combined this technique with others— successive lay- 
ers, application of sheets of paper, scattering sand over 
the painting, scratching it with the tines of a fork. In 
this way I produced finely worked sheets that gave the 
impression of teeming matter, alive and sparkling, 
which I could use to represent a piece of ground, but 
which could also evoke all kinds of indeterminate 
textures, and even galaxies and nebulae. But most of 
these paintings, about fifteen in number, which I call 
Texturologies, I also decided to keep intact, instead of 
cutting them up for my assemblages. . . . (Selz and 
Dubuffet, pp. 132-137. Translated by Louise Varese) 


18. Texturology XXVI (Radiant). March 31, 1958 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collect 








The Substance ol Stars December 1 959 

Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York 


82 Pans Polka. October 24-25. 1961 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 


100. Nunc Starts. May 16-June 5, 1965 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 

I have often thought that the work of art directly cap- 
tures the operations of the mind, in the same way that 
the electrocardiogram directly transcribes heartbeats. 
But we expect a painting to be more than a simple dia- 
gram: a kind of imprint which traces all the various 
mental activities (whose workings are much more com- 
plex than those of the heart muscle). (From letter to H. 
Damisch, June 7, 1962, published in M. Loreau, 
Catalogue des travaux de Jean Dubuffet. Fascicule XIX: 
Paris Circus, Paris, 1965, n.p. Translated by Thomas 

... I don't think that my new paintings are either more 
or less figurative than those that preceded them. It's 
just that a new theme has been introduced; they are 
about gesture and mimicry, social life and urban life, 
whereas the earlier ones were about uncivilized places, 
deserts, the ground, natural elements like stones, bits 
of earth, etc. ... I am trying to bring these things out, 
first by using a very pronounced, even frenzied, graphic 
style, and arbitrarily loud, gaudy colors. The means 
change, but not the goal, which is still to strongly evoke 
our most common perceptions through arbitrary and 
unforeseen transcriptions, to strip away the cloak that 
habit wraps around them and make them seem to look 
like new. (From letter to J.-L. Ferrier, November 15, 
1961, published in Loreau, 1965. n.p. Translated by 
Thomas Repensek) 



Black background. 

1. Outlines in moderately bright pink. . . . 

2. Filling in areas enclosed by outlines with white. . . . 

3. Retracing the outlines in black. 

4. Crosshatching in red and blue. 

5. Embellishing some of crosshatched areas; for red 
lines use pink; for blue lines, light blue. Overlay with 
white to obtain highlights. . . . 

6. Overlay pure white heavily on some remaining white 

7. Brightly encircle it all. Made first with bright pinkish 
gray . . . then again here and there with white. Then 
overlay completely with light gray . . . then again 
scattered white. (From Cahier d'atelier. published in 
Loreau, Fascicule XXI: Hourloupe II, Paris. 1968. n.p. 
Translated by Thomas Repensek) 


104 Table with Decanter December 1968 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 


106. Mute Permute. October 1971 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. 
Gift. Mr and Mrs Morion L Janklow 


... I should mention in passing that L'Hourloupe is a 
word whose invention was based upon its sound. In 
French, these sounds suggest some wonderland or 
grotesque object or creature, while at the same time 
they evoke something rumbling and threatening with 
tragic overtones Both are implied. 

In my thinking, the works that belong to the Hourloupe 
cycle are linked one to the other, each of them an ele- 
ment destined to become part of the whole. The cycle 
itself is conceived as the figuration of a world other 
than our own or, if you prefer, parallel to ours, and it is 
this world which bears the name I'Hourloupe. . . . 

At the beginning, this cycle included only drawings and 
paintings. Subsequently, I wished to give them greater 
corporality. I undertook to assimilate them to three- 
dimensional forms, presenting, as do all solids, several 
sides to the observer. The result was objects of equivo- 
cal status. They have been called painted sculptures, 
but this term is not really accurate. Rather, they should 
be considered drawings which extend and expand in 
space. . . . 

("Remarks on the Unveiling of The Group of Four 
Trees, New York, October 24. 1972," The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York. Jean Dubuflet: A 
Retrospective. 1973. exh. cat.) 


Works in the Exhibition 

1 Rope Skipper iDanseuse de corde). February 1943 
Oil on canvas. 39 3/8 x 28 3/4 (100 x 73 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

2. Archetypes (Archetypes! May 1945 

Incised thick impasto and mixed media on canvas. 

39 3/8x313/4 (100 x80 6 cm) 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York 

3. Miss Cholera (Miss Cholera). January 1946 
Oil. sand, pebbles and straw on canvas. 

21 1/2 x 18 (54 6 x 45.7 cm.) 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 

New York, Gift. Katharine Kuh 

4. Will to Power (Volonte de puissance). January 1946 
Oil. pebbles, sand and glass on canvas. 

45 3/4x35 (116.2x88 9 cm.) 

Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum. New York 

5. Edith Boissonnas. Tibetan Demon 

(Edith Boissonnas Demon Thibetain). February 1947 

Oil and mixed media on canvas, 51 1/4 x 37 1/2 (130 x 97 cm.) 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

5a. Nomads on Saddled Camel 

(Nomades an chameau bate). May-June 1948 
Oil on canvas. 51 3/16 x 38 3/16 (130 x 97 cm.) 
Promised gift. The Mary Sisler Collection, 
Palm Beach, Florida 

6 Two Bedouins in the Desert (with Gazelles) 
(Deux Bedouins au desert [avec gazelles] ). 1948 
Gouache on paper. 15x19 (38 .1 x 48-3 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

7. Triumph and Glory (Triomphe et gloire). December 1950 
Oil on canvas. 51 x 38 (129 5 x 96.5 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York 

8 Corps de Dame (Corps de dame). 1950 

Watercolor on paper. 12 1/4 x 14 3/4 (31.1 x 37.5 cm) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

9. Attentive Face (Visage attentil). January 1952 
Oil on Masonite. 24 x 20 (61 x 50.8 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

10. Knoll ol Visions (La Butte aux visions). August 23, 1952 
Oil on Masonite, 59 x 76 3/4 (150 x 195 cm.) 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York 

11. The Duke (Le Due). 1952 
Sponge, 24 (61 cm.) h. 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

12. Extravagant Lady (L'Extravagante). July 1954 
Oil on canvas, 36 1/4 x 28 3/4 (92 x 73 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

13. The Joker (Le Farceur). August 1954 
Coal-slag clinker, 12 3/16 (31 cm.) h. 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

14 Cow(Vache). 1954 

Oil on paper, 15 1/4 x 19 3/4" (38.7 x 50 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

15. Bearded Man with Large Ears (Barbu oreillu). July 1955 
Collage of butterfly wings and ink, 13 x 9" (33 x 23 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

16. Christmas on the Ground (Noel au sol). December 1955. signed 1956 
Oil on canvas with assemblage. 40 x 35 1/4 (101.6 x 89.5 cm.) 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

17. Door with Couch Grass (Porte au chiendent). October 31, 1957 
Oil on canvas with assemblage. 74 1/2 x 57 1/2 (189.2 x 146 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York 

18. Texturology XXVI (Radiant) (Texturologie XXVI [Radieuse] ). 
March 31. 1958 

Oil on canvas. 44 1/2 x 57" (113 x 144.8 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

19. Pullulation (Texturology XLII) ( Pullulation [Texturologie XLII] ). 
May 27, 1958 

Oil on canvas. 35 x 45 3/4" (88.9 x 116.2 cm ) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

20-63. The Phenomena (Les Phenomenes). August 1958-April 1962 

44 prints of varying dimensions from 22 albums of 347 lithographs on paper 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

Banalities (Banalites). 1958-59 

6 prints from portfolio of 10 lithographs on paper, each 25 x 17 7/8" 

(63.5x45.4 cm.) 

64 Shady Promenade (Esplanade ombreuse). 1958 

65. Pool of Shade (Bain d'ombre). 1959 
Plate III 

66. Intimacy (Intimate). 1959 
Plate V 

67. Fragility (Fragilite). 1959 
Plate VI 

68. Flower of Air (Fleurd'air). 1959 
Plate IX 

69 Ripening (Munssement). 1959 
Plate X 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York, 
Gift. Mr. and Mrs. Ralph F. Colin, New York. 1971 


69a Scintillation (Scintillement). August 1959 

Lithograph on paper, 14 9/16 x 14 9/16 (37 x 37 cm.) 
Promised gift, The Mary Sisler Collection, 
Palm Beach, Florida 

70. Tobacco Man with Goatee (Tabac barbiche). August 1959 
Collage of tobacco leaves, botanical elements and ink on paper 
21 1/4 x 14 (24 x 35.6 cm.) 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

71. Icy Mien (Grise mine). October 1959 
Driftwood, 16 1/2 (42cm.)h. 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

72. Astonished One (L'Etonne). October 1959 
Burned cork and silver foil, 14 1/2 (36.8 cm) h 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

73. Toothy Smirk (Minaudage aux dents). Decernber 4, 1959 
Papier mache. 14 5 8 (37.2 cm.) h. 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

73a Soul ol the Underground 

(LAme des sous-sols) December 1959 

Metal foil on Masonite. 59 1/16 x 77 3/16 (150 x 196 cm.) 

Promised gift. The Mary Sisler Collection, 

Palm Beach. Florida 

74 The Substance ol Stars (Substance d'astre). December 1959 
Metal foil on Masonite, 59 x 76 3/4 (150 x 195 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 

75. Shade Tree (LArbre o 'ombre). 1959 

Lithograph on paper, 26 x 19 3/4 (66 x 50 2 cm ) 

Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum. New York. 

Gift. Mr and Mrs Morton L. Ostow. 1979 

Spectacles 1959-61 

4 prints from portfolio of 10 lithographs on paper 

76. Carelessness (Insouciance). 1961 
25 x 17 7/8 (63 5 x 45.4 cm.) 
Plate IV 

77 Impermanence 1959 
25 x 18 (63.5x45.7 cm.) 
Plate VI 

78. Resonances. 1961 

25 x 17 7/8 (63.5 x 45.4 cm.) 
Plate VII 

79 Symbioses. 1959 

25 x 19 3/4 (66x50.2 cm.) 
Plate X 

Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum. 

New York. Gift. Mr and Mrs Ralph F Colin. New York. 1971 

80 Pissing to the Left I (Pisseur a gauche I). August 26. 1961 
India ink and wash on paper, 17 x 13 (43.2 x 33 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 


Irish Jig (La Gigue irlandaise). September 18-19, 1961 

Oil on canvas. 44 7/8 x 57 1/2 (114 x 146 cm ) 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York 

Paris Polka. October 24-25. 1961 

Oil on canvas. 75 1/4 x 87 1/4 (191,1 x 221,6 cm.) 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

83 Smile I (Sounre I). 1961 

Lithograph on paper. 20 9 16 x 15 (52.2 x 38.1 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

84 Propitious Moment ( L'lnstant propice). January 2-3, 1962 
Oil on canvas. 78 3/4 x 65 (200 x 165 cm.) 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York 

85-98. Profile to the Right I - XIV (Profit a droite I - XIV). 
October 1962 

Chromatic suite of 14 lithographs on paper, 
each 25x17 5/8 (63.5 x 44.7 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 
New York. Gift, Mr and Mrs Ralph F Colin. New York, 1972 

99. Saturday Anon (Samedi tantot). Summer 1964 

Lithograph on paper. 25 3/4 x 19 3/4 (65.4 x 50 2 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York 

100. Nunc Stans May 16-June 5. 1965 
Vinyl on canvas, three panels, 
each 63 3/4 x 107 7/8 (161.9 x 274 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York 

101 The Workroom (Le Cabinet de travail). October 3, 1966 
Polyester resin relief, 47 1/2 x 79 1/4 x 4 

(120 7x201 3 x 10 2 cm.) 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

102 Male Portrait I (Portrait d'homme I). October 28. 1966 
Polyester resin, 20 1/2 x 8 x 8 3/4 (52 x 20 3 x 22 2 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

103. Bidon I'Esbroufe. December 11, 1967 
Acrylic on fiberglas-reinforced polyester resin, 
65 3/4 (167 cm.) h 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York. 
Gift of the artist in honor of Mr and Mrs Thomas M. Messer. 1970 

104. Table with Decanter (Table a la carafe). December 1968 
Cast epoxy polyurethane. 44 x 55 x 45 1/4 

(111.8 x 139.7 x 115cm ) 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

105 Grandfather Redingote (Grand-Pere Redingote) early June 1971 
Acrylic paint on Klegecell. 71 5/8 x 36 5/8 (182 x 93 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 


105a Mischievous One (LEspiegle) July 24, 1971 

Acrylic paint on Klegecell. 71 11 16 x 34 14 (182 x 87 cm.) 
Promised anonymous gift 

106 Mule Permute October 1971 

Vinyl and acrylic paint on Klegecell. glazed with polyester 
and fiberglas. 113 5 8 x 151 1 2 x 1 12 (289 x 385 5 x 4 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum. New York. 
Gift. Mr and Mrs Morton L Janklow. 1979 

107 Busybody ILe Tracassier). March 1972 

Vinyl paint on polyester-coated fiberglas on Klegecell. 
923 4x503 4 (235 5x129cm) 

Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York. 
Gift of the artist. 1973 

108 Bust with Birds Taking Flight (Buste aux envois) May 13. 1972 
Epoxy paint on polyurethane. 

43 1 2x27x 27 12 (110 5 x 68 6 x 69 9 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

109 The Founder (Bust) ILe Fondateur ! Buste' ). June 19. 1972 
Epoxy paint on polyurethane. 

25x19 12x16 (634x495x407cm) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

110 Character in Costume (Personnage costume). April 15, 1973 
Drawing for Coucou Bazaar program 

Marker on paper. 18 x 13 1/2 (45.7 x 33 cm ) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

111 Coucou Bazaar: Bal de I'Hourloupe 1973 
Coucou Bazaar program 

Lithography on paper. 18 x 13 1/4 (45 7 x 33 7 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum. New York 

Fleeting Presences (Presences lugaces) 1973 
Album of 6 color sengraphs on paper, 
each 29 15/16 x 22 1/16 (76 x 56 cm ) 

112 Celebrator 

113 Exallador 

114 Protestator 

115 Obiectador 

116 Epiphanor 

117 Denegrator 

The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

118 Portrait ol a Lady in the Country 
(Portrait de dame a la campagne). 
September 8. 1974 (R96) 

Crayon and marker on paper. 12 3/4 x 9 3/4 (32.4 x 24.8 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

119 Parachiffre LXIII. February 23. 1975 
Vinyl paint on paper mounted on canvas. 
25 1/2 x 36 1 '4 (64 8 x 92 cm.) 

Collection The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York. 
Gift. American Art Foundation, 1978 

119a Mundaneness IX (Mondanite IX) March 4. 1975 

Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 25 7/16 x 36 1/4" (64 5 x 92 cm.) 
Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum. New York. 
Gift of the artist. 1981 

120. Protocol of Epiphany ( Protocole epiphamque) 1976 
Assemblage on paper mounted on canvas. 
80 12 x 111 1/4" (204.5 x 282.6 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

121 Situation VI. April 28. 1978 (D32) 

Ink and collage on paper. 13 3/4 x 10 (34 9 x 25 4 cm ) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

122. Memoration XVIII. December 19, 1978 (D142) 

Ink and collage on paper. 20 x 27 1/2 (50.8 x 69.9 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

123. Site with Components (Site a composantes). 
April 22, 1979 (A30) 

Acrylic and collage on paper. 15 3/4 x 17 3/4 (40 x 45 cm.) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

124. Solitary One (L'Esseule). 1981 

Acrylic on canvas. 39 1 <4 x 31 3 4 (99 7 x 80.7 cm ) 
The Morton and Linda Janklow Collection 

125 Sails designed by by Jean Dubuffet 1976 
a. Fugitive (Le Fugitif) 

Dacron. rope, thread, plastic, metal, wool yarn and 
plastic tape. 34 5 x 21 (10.52x6 4 m) 

b Dog (Le Chien) 

Dacron. rope, thread, plastic, metal and suede. 

17 6 x86 (5 4 x 2.6 m ) 
Collection The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum. New York. 
Gift. Harry and Linda Macklowe. 1981 


Jean Dubuffet was born in Le Havre on July 31, 1901. 
He attended art classes in his youth and in 1918 moved 
to Paris to study at the Academie Julian, which he left 
after six dissatisfying months. During this time Dubuffet 
met Suzanne Valadon, Raoul Dufy, Fernand Leger and 
Max Jacob and became fascinated with Hans 
Prinzhorn's book on psychopathic art; he was also 
interested in literature, music, philosophy and linguis- 
tics. In 1923 and 1924 he traveled to Italy and South 
America respectively. Then Dubuffet gave up painting 
for about ten years, supporting himself first as an 
industrial draftsman and thereafter entering the family 
wine business. After much vacillation between careers 
in art and business, he committed himself entirely to 
becoming an artist in 1942 

Dubuffet's first one-man exhibition was held at the 
Galerie Rene Drouin in Paris in 1944. During the forties 
the artist associated with Charles Ratton, Jean 
Paulhan, Georges Limbour and Andre Breton. His style 
and subject matter in this period owed a debt to Paul 
Klee and Alfred Jarry From 1945 he collected Art Brut, 
spontaneous, direct works by individuals (often mental 
patients) not influenced by professional artists The 
Pierre Matisse Gallery gave him his first one-man show 
in New York in 1947 s°iomon n » 


enheim Museum Library 

From 1951 to 1952 Dubuffet lived in New York; he then 
returned to Paris, where a retrospective of his work 
took place at the Cercle Volney in 1954. His first 
museum retrospective occurred in 1957 at the Schloss 
Morsbroich, Leverkusen, Germany. Major Dubuffet 
exhibitions have since been held at the Musee des Arts 
Decoratifs, Paris, The Museum of Modern Art. New 
York, The Art Institute of Chicago, the Stedelijk 
Museum, Amsterdam, the Tate Gallery, London, and 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York. 
His paintings of L'Hourloupe. a series begun in 1962, 
were exhibited at the Palazzo Grassi in Venice in 1964. 
A collection of Dubuffet's writings. Prospectus et tous 
ecrits suivants, was published in 1967, the same year he 
started his architectural structures. Soon thereafter he 
began numerous commissions for monumental outdoor 
sculptures, some of which were shown at The Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago in 1969. In 1971 he produced his first 
theater props, the "practicables." The following year his 
Group of Four Trees was erected at Chase Manhattan 
Plaza, New York, and he gave his collection of Art Brut 
to the city of Lausanne. His most recent retrospective 
was shown at the Akademie der Kunste, Berlin, in 1980 
and traveled to Vienna and Cologne in 1980-81 
Dubuffet lives and works in Paris and Perigny. 


The artist at the gate to his studio in Vence, 
Summer 1959